Estilo apa

MANUAL DE PUBLICACIÓN
ASOCIACIÓN AMERICANA DE PSICOLOGÍA
(American Psychological Association)
Séptima edición – 2020

APA Style Director: Emily L. Ayubi
APA Style Content Development Managers: Chelsea L. Bromstad Lee, Hayley S. Kamin, and Timothy L. McAdoo
APA Style Editors: Anne T. Woodworth and Ayanna A. Adams

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.).
http://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000

ISBN 978-1-4338-3215-4 (Hardcover)
Printed in the United States of America



1. FUENTES EN EL CUERPO TEXTUAL

1.1 Estilos básicos de citación en el cuerpo textual (p. 266)

1.2. Evitando la ambigüedad de las citaciones en el cuerpo textual (p. 267)

Kapoor, Bloom, Montez, et al. (2017)
Kapoor, Bloom, Zucker, et al. (2017)

Hasan, Liang, Kahn, and Jones-Miller (2015)
Hasan, Liang, Kahn, and Weintraub (2015)

(Judge & Kammeyer-Mueller, 2012a)
Judge and Kammeyer-Mueller (2012b)

(J. M. Taylor & Neimeyer, 2015; T. Taylor, 2014)

1.3. Referencias primarias y secundarias (p. 258)

(Rabbitt, 1982, as cited in Lyon et al., 2014)
Allport’s diary (as cited in Nicholson, 2003)

1.4. Citando varios trabajos (p. 263)

Cuando se citan varias referencias en paréntesis, colocar las referencias en orden alfabético, separándolas con punto y coma.

(Adams et al., 2019; Shumway & Shulman, 2015; Westinghouse, 2017)
Zhou (2000, 2016, in press)
(Carraway et al., 2013, 2014, 2019)
(Sampson & Hugues, 2020; see also Augustine, 2017; Melara et al., 2018; Pérez, 2014)

1.5. Citando partes específicas de una referencia (p. 264)

(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019, p. 10)
(Armstrong, 2015, pp. 3-17)
(Kovacic & Horvat, 2019, Table 1)

1.6. Paráfrasis (p. 269)

Avid readers of science fiction and fantasy books are more likely than readers of other genres to believe in futuristic scenarios, for example, that it will someday be possible to travel to other galaxies or power a car on solar energy (Black et al., 2018).

Webster-Stratton (2016) described a case example of a 4-year-old girl who showed an insecure attachment to her mother; in working with the family dyad, the therapist focused on increasing the mother’s empathy for her child (pp. 152-153).

1.7. Citas cortas (pp. 271-272, 274-275 y 278)

Son aquellas que tienen menos de 40 palabras: se incorporan en el cuerpo textual de manera entrecomillada.

Effective teams can be difficult to describe because “high performance along one domain does not translate to high performance along other” (Ervin et al., 2018, p. 470).

Biebel et al. (2018) noted that “incorporating the voice of students with psychiatric disabilities into supported education services can increase access, involvement, and retention” (p. 299).

Una cita corta de una fuente audiovisual (audio-libro, video de YouTube, charlas TED, programas de televisión), detallar el tiempo de inicio de la secuencia audiovisual como reemplazo del número de página.

People make “sweeping inferences and judgements from body language” (Cuddy, 2012, 2:12).

Algunas modificaciones a las citas cortas requieren una serie de detalles adicionales:

De Backer and Fisher (2012) noted that “those [adults] who read gossip magazines, watch gossip-related television shows, or read gossip articles from internet sites … may feel guilty about wasting their time on a leisure pursuit” (p. 421). The emphasized that “it is important to remember that gossip helped our ancestors survive [emphasis added], and thus by accessing gossip, one is faced with an opportunity to vicariously learn solution [sic] to adaptive problems” (De Backer & Fisher, 2012, p. 421).

Las citas de los participantes entrevistados en la investigación son tratados de manera diferente que las citas de obras publicadas. Debido a que las citas de los participantes son parte de la investigación original, no serán incluidas en la lista de referencias o tratadas como comunicaciones personales; dejar en claro dentro del cuerpo textual que son citas provenientes de los propios participantes.

Participant “Julia,” a 32-year-old woman from California, described her experiences as a new mother as “simultaneously the best and the hardest time of my live.” Several other participants agreed, describing the beginning of parenthood as “joyful,” “lonely,” and “intense.” Julia and the other participants completed interviews in their homes.

1.8. Citas largas (pp. 272-273)

Son aquellas que tienen más de 40 palabras. Aparecen en un párrafo aparte, sin entrecomillar.

Flores et al. (2018) described how they addressed potential researcher bias when working with an intersectional community of transgender people of color:

Everyone on the research team belonged to a stigmatized group but also held privileged identities. Throughout the research process, we attended to the ways in which our privileged and oppressed identities may have influenced the research process, findings, and presentation of results. (p. 311)

Regarding implications for chronic biases in expectation formation,

in order to accurately estimate whether people are likely to form positive or negative expectations on any given occasion, it is necessary to go beyond simply considering chronic individual differences and identify the factors that make people more likely to form expectations in line with one bias or the other.
      The present research sheds light on this issue by identifying a crucial distinction in the operation of these two trait biases in expectation formation. Specifically, people’s valence weighting biases and self-beliefs about the future appear to shape expectations via qualitatively distinct processes. (Niese et al., 2019, p. 210)

1.9. Comunicaciones personales (pp. 260-261)

Usar la cita de comunicación personal cuando la fuente no está disponible para su recuperación.

Las comunicaciones personales incluyen correos electrónicos, mensajes de texto, chats en línea o mensajes directos; entrevistas personales, conversaciones telefónicas, discursos en vivo, conferencias en el aula no grabadas; notas, cartas, mensajes de grupos de discusión no archivados o en línea tablones de anuncios, y así sucesivamente.

Debido a que los lectores no pueden recuperar la información en las comunicaciones personales, estas no se incluyen en la lista de referencias; se citan únicamente dentro del cuerpo textual.

E.-M. Paradis (personal communication, August 8, 2019)
(T. Nguyenm personal communication, February 24, 2020)

No presente citas de comunicación personal de la misma forma que las de los participantes entrevistados para la investigación.

We spoke with Anna Grant (personal communication, April 2019) about traditional understandings of the world by First Nations Peoples in Canada. She described …

1.10. Notas al pie de página (pp. 40 y 55)

Las llamadas de las notas al pie van en superíndice, siempre después de todos los signos de puntuación, excepto el guion.

… These findings produced a statistically significant interaction between course delivery method and evaluation year.1 Simple main effects test revealed statistically significant differences in the response rates for face-to-face courses and online courses for each of the 3 observation years.2

The first main effect involved evaluation year (see Footnote 1).

        1 A Greenhouse-Geisser adjustment of the degrees of freedom was performed in anticipation of a sphericity assumption violation.
        2 A test of the homogeneity of variance assumption revealed no statistically significant difference in response rate variance between the two delivery modes for the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd years.

2. TABLAS Y FIGURAS (p. 197)

Las tablas y las figuran tienen la misma estructura.

Para referirse a las tablas y figuras dentro del cuerpo textual:

As show in Table 1, the demographic characteristics…
Figure 1 shows the event-related potentials…
… of the results of the testing (see Table 3).
… of the comparisons (see Figures 4 and 7).

Ejemplos de tablas (pp. 215 y 217):


Ejemplos de figuras (pp. 235, 244, 247 y 249): 

3. LISTA DE REFERENCIAS

3.1. Fuentes textuales (p. 267)

3.1.1. Publicaciones periódicas (pp. 317 y 320)

McCauley, S., & Christiansen, M. (2019). Language learning as language use: A cross-linguistic model of child language development. Psychological Review, 126(1), 1-51. http://doi.org/10.1037/rev0000126

Ahmann, E., Tuttle, L., Saviet, M., & Wright, S. (2018). A descriptive review of ADHD coaching research: Implications for college students. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 3(1), 17-39. http://www.ahead.org/professional-resources/publications/jped/archived-jped/jped-volumne-31

Kalnay, E., Kanamitsu, M., Kistler, R., Collins, W., Deaven, D., Gandin, L., Iredell, M., Saha, S., White, G., Woolen, J., Zhu, Y., Chelliah, M., Ebisuzaki, W., Higgins, W., Janowiak, J., Mo, K., Ropelewski, C., Wang, J., Leetmaa, A., … Joseph, D. (1996). The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 77(3), 437-471. http://doi.org/fg6rf9

De Vries, R., Nieuwenhuijze, M., Buitendijk, S., & the members of Midwifery Science Work Group. (2013). What does it take to have a strong and independent profession of midwifery? Lessons from the Netherlands. Midwifery, 29(10), 1122-1128. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2013.07.007

Cuellar, N. (2016). Study abroad programs [Editorial]. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 27(3). https://doi.org/10.1177/1043659616638722

Bustillos, M. (2013, March 19). On video games and storytelling: An interview with Tom Bissell. The New Yorker. http://www.newyorker.com/books/page-turner/on-video-games-and-storytelling-an-interview-with-tom-bissell

Guarino, B. (2017, December 4). How will humanity react to alien life? Psychologists have some predictions. The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/speaking-of-science/wp/2017/12/04/how-will-humanity-react-to-alien-life-psychologists-have-some-predictions

Klymkowsky, M. (2018, September 15). Can we talk scientifically about free will? Sci-Ed. https://blogs.plos.org/scied)2018/09/15/can-we-talk-scientifically-about-free-will

3.1.2. Libros (pp. 321-323)

Burgess, R. (2019). Rethinking global heath; Frameworks of power. Routledge.

Christian, B., & Griffiths, T. (2016). Algorithms to live by: The computer science of human decisions. Henry Holt and Co. http://a.co/7qGBZAk

Schmid, H. (Ed.). (2017). Entrenchment and the psychology of language learning: How we organize and adapt linguistic knowledge. American Psychological Association; De Gruyter Mouton. http://doi.org/10.1037/15969-000

Travis, C., & White, J. (Eds.). (2018). APA handbook of the psychology of women: Vol. 1. History, theory, and battlegrounds. American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000059-000

3.1.3. Capítulos de libros compilatorios y enciclopedias (pp. 326-328)

Balsam, K., Martell, C., Jones, K., & Safren, S. (2019). Affirmative cognitive behavior therapy with sexual and gender minority people. In G. Iwamasa & P. Hays (Eds.), Culturally responsive cognitive behavior therapy: Practice and supervision (pp. 287-314). American Psychological Association. http://doi.org/10.1037/0000119-012

Graham, G. (2019). Behaviorism. In E. Zalta (Ed.), The Standford encyclopedia of philosophy. Standford University. https://plato.standford.edu/archives/sum2019/entries/behaviorism

3.1.4. Reportes (pp. 329-330)

Canada Council of the Arts. (2013). What we heard: Summary of key findings: 2013 Canada Council’s Inter-Arts Office consultation. http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2017/canadacouncil/K23-652013-eng.pdf

National Cancer Institute. (2018). Facing forward: Life after cancer treatment (NIH Publication No. 18-2424). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. http://www.cancer.gov/publications/patient-education/life-after-treatment.pdf

Fried, D., & Polyakova, A. (2018). Democratic defense against disinformation. Atlantic Council. https://www.atlanticcouncil.org/images/publications/Democratic_Defense_Against_Disinformation_FINAL.pdf

3.1.5. Conferencias y presentaciones (pp. 332-333)

Fistek, A., Jester, E., & Sonnenberg, K. (2017, July 12-15). Everybody’s got a little music in them: Using music therapy to connect, engage, and motivate [Conference session]. Autism Society National Conference, Milwaukee, WI, United States. https://asa.confex.com/asa/2017/webprogramarchives/Session9517.html

De Boer, D., & LaFavor, T. (2018, April 26-29). The art and significance of successfully identifying resilient individuals: A person-focused approach. In A. Schmidt & A. Kryvanos (Chairs), Perspectives on resilience: Conceptualization, measurement, and enhancement [Symposium]. Western Psychological Association 98th Annual Convention, Portland, OR, United States.

3.1.6. Tesis, reseñas y trabajos no publicados (pp. 334-336)

Harris, L. (2014). Instructional leadership perceptions and practices of elementary school leaders [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Virginia.

Hutcheson, V. (2012). Dealing with dual differences: Social coping strategies of gifted adolescents [Master’s thesis, The College of William & Mary. William & Mary Digital Archive. https://digitalarchive.wm.edu/bitstream/handle/10288/16594/HutchesonVirginia2012.pdf

Santos, F. (2019, January 11). Reframing refugee children’s stories [Review of the book We are displaced: My journey and stories from refugee girls around the world, by M. Yousafzai]. The New York Times. https://nyti.ms/2Hlgk3

Yoo, j., Miyamoto, Y., Rigotti, A., & Ryff, C. (2016). Linking positive affect to blood lipids: A cultural perspective [Unpublished manuscript]. Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

3.2. Medios audiovisuales

3.2.1. Fuentes audiovisuales (pp. 342-344)

Jackson, P. (Director). (2001). The lord of the rings: The fellowship of the ring [Film; four-disc special extended ed. On DVD]. WingNut Films; The Saul Zaentz Company.

Malle, L. (Director). (1987). Au revoir les enfants [Goodbye children] [Film]. Nouvelles Éditions de Films.

Simon, D., Colesberry, R., & Kostroff, N. (Executive Producers). (2002-2008). The wire [TV series]. Blown Deadline Productions; HBO.

Oakley, B. (Writer), Weinstein, J. (Writer), & Lynch, J. (Director). (1995, May 21). Who shot Mr. Burns? (Part one) (Season 6, Episode 25) [TV series episode]. In D. Mikin, J. Brooks, M. Groening, & S. Simon (Executive Producers), The Simpsons. Gracie Films; Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation.

El autor o la entidad que subió el video se acredita como el autor (por el hecho de recuperar la data), incluso si no diseñaron el material.

Fogarty, M. [Grammar Girl]. (2016, September 30). How to diagram a sentence (absolute basics) [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/deiEY5Yq1ql

TED. (2012, March 16). Brené Brown: Listening to shame [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=psN1DORYY0

University of Oxford. (2018, December 6). How do geckos walk on water? [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qm1xGfOZJc8

3.2.2. Fuentes de audio (pp. 344-346)

Bach, J. (2010). The Brandenburg concertos: Concertos BWV 1043 & 1060 [Album recorded by Academy of St Martin in the Fields]. Decca. (Original work published 1721)

Beethoven, L. van. (2012). Symphony No. 3 in E-flat major [Song recorded by Staatskapelle Dresden]. On Beethoven: Complete symphonies. Brilliant Classics. (Original work published 1804)

Bowie, D. (2016). Blackstar [Album]. Columbia.

Beyoncé. (2016). Formation [Song]. On Lemonade. Parkwood; Columbia.

Vedantam, S. (Host). (2015-present). Hidden brain [Audio podcast]. NPR. https://www.npr.org/series/423302056/hidden-brain

Glass, I. (Host). (2011, August 12). Amusement park (no. 443) [Audio podcast episode]. In This American life. WBEZ Chicago. https://www.thisamericanlife.org/radio-archives/episode/443/amusement-park

Beauvoir, S. de. (1960, May 4). Simone de Beauvoir discusses the art of writing [Interview]. Studs Terkel Radio Archive; The Chicago History Museum. https://studsterkel.wfmt.com/programs/simone-de-beauvoir-discusses-art-writing

King, M. L., Jr. (1963, August 28). I have a dream [Speech audio recording]. American Rhetoric. https://wwww.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/mlkihaveadream.htm

3.2.3. Fuentes visuales (pp. 346-347)

Wood, G. (1930). American gothic [Painting]. Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States. https://www.artic.edu/aic/collections/artwork/6565

GDJ. (2018). Neural network deep learning prismatic [Clip Art]. Openclipart. https://openclipart.org/detail/309343/neural-network-deep-learning-prismatic

Cable, D. (2013). The racial dot map [Map]. University of Virginia, Weldon Cooper Center for Public Service. https://demographics.coopercenter.org/Racial-Dot-Map

McCurry, S. (1985). Afghan girl [Photograph]. National Geographic. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/national-geographic-magazine-50-years-of-covers/#/ngm-1985-jun-714.jpg

Rinaldi, J. (2016). [Photograph series of a boy who finds his footing after abuse by those he trusted]. The Pulitzer Prizes. https://pulitzer.org/winners/jessica-rinaldi

Canan, E., & Vasilev, J. (2019, May 22). [Lecture notes on resource allocation]. Department of Management Control and Information Systems, University of Chile. https://uchilefau.academia.edu/ElseZCanan

Housand, B. (2016). Game on! Integrating games and simulations in the classroom [PowerPoint slides]. SlideShare. https://www.slideshare.net/brianhousand/game-on-iagc-2016/

3.3. Medios en línea

3.3.1. Redes sociales (pp. 348-350)

APA Education [@APAEducation]. (2018, June 29). College students are forming mental-health clubs–and they’re making a difference @washingtonpost [Thumbnail with link attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/apaeducation/status/1012810490530140161

White, B. [@BettyMWhite]. (2018, June 21). I treasure every minute we spent together #koko [Image attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/BettyMWhite/status/1009951892846227456

Gaiman, N. (2018, March 22). 100,000+ Rohingya refugees could be at serious risk during Bangladesh’s monsoon season. My fellow UNHCR Goodwill Ambassador Cate Blanchett is [Image attached] [Status update]. Facebook. http://bit.ly/2JQxPAD

News from Science. (2018, June 26). These frogs walk instead of hop: https://scim.aag/2KlriwH [Video]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/ScienceNOW/videos/10155508587605108

Zeitz MOCAA [@zeitzmocaa]. (2018, November 26). Grade 6 learners from Parkfields Primary School in Hanover Park visited the museum for a tour and workshop hosted by [Photographs]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/BqpHpjFBs3b/

3.3.2. Páginas electrónicas y portales (p. 351)

Avramova, N. (2019, January 3). The secret to a long, happy, healthy life? Thing age-positive. CNN. https://edition.cnn.com/2019/01/03/health/respect-toward-elderly-leads-to-long-life-intl/index.html

World Health Organization. (2018, March). Questions and answers on immunization and vaccine safety. http://www9.who.int/features/qa/84/en/

Martin, C. (2016, December 29). Be kind to yourself: How self-compassion can improve your resiliency. Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/adult-health/in-depth/self-compassion-can-improve-your-resiliency/art-20267193

3.4. Programas de computación, equipos electrónicos y aplicaciones móviles (pp. 342-344)

Borenstein, M., Hedges, L., Higgins, J., & Rothstein, H. (2014). Comprehensive meta-analysis (Version 3.3.070) [Computer software]. Biostat. https://www.meta-analysis.com/

SR Research. (2016). Eyelink 1000 plus [Apparatus and software]. https://www.sr-research.com/eyelink1000plus.html

Epocrates. (2019). Epocrates medical references (Version 18.12) [Mobile app]. App Store. https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/epocrates/id281935788?mt=8